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SONATA

SONATA
Sonata

DESCRIPTION / DEFINITIONS: Sonata® (zaleplon) is an Anxiolytic, Sedative & Hypnotic drug prescribed for the treatment of insomnia. According to its label, “Sonata is indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Sonata has been shown to decrease the time to sleep onset for up to 30 days in controlled clinical studies under. It has not been shown to increase total sleep time or decrease the number of awakenings.The clinical trials performed in support of efficacy ranged from a single night to 5 weeks in duration. The final formal assessments of sleep latency were performed at the end of treatment.”

ABUSE: Sonata can have withdrawal symptoms. Sonata is a Schedule IV Controlled Subtance.

ADDICTION / DEPENDENCE: Half Life and Metabolism.

SIDE EFFECTS: Colitis, nausea, amnesia, confusion (see list below)

WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS: Insomnia, anxiety (see list below).

TREATMENT: Medical detoxification.

DESCRIPTION / DEFINITIONS

Sonata® (zaleplon) is an Anxiolytic, Sedative & Hypnotic drug prescribed for the short-term treatment of insomnia. According to its label, “Because sleep disturbances may be the presenting manifestation of a physical and/or psychiatric disorder, symptomatic treatment of insomnia should be initiated only after a careful evaluation of the patient. The failure of insomnia to remit after 7 to 10 days of treatment may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric and/or medical illness that should be evaluated.

The label also states, “Subunit modulation of the GABA-BZ receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex is hypothesized to be responsible for some of the pharmacological properties of benzodiazepines, which include sedative, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive effects in animal models."

ABUSE

Sonata can have withdrawal symptoms. Sonata is a Schedule IV Controlled Subtance.

ADDCTION / DEPENDENCE

HALF LIFE AND METABOLISM

The biological half life of a substance is the time it takes for a drug to lose half of its pharmacologic activity. This is significant because it affects how soon withdrawal symptoms may appear.

The half life of Sonata is approximately 1 hour.

Sonata is mainly metabolized through the P450 pathway in the liver and the enzymes primarily handling the metabolism is CYP3A4 but it is not clear how much of the metabolism is done by other enzymes.

The CYP enzymes are the major enzymes involved in drug metabolism, and since many drugs may increase or decrease the activity of various CYP isozymes, this is a major source of adverse drug interactions, since changes in CYP enzyme activity may affect the metabolism and clearance of various drugs. For example, if one drug inhibits the CYP-mediated metabolism of another drug, the second drug may accumulate within the body to toxic levels, possibly causing an overdose.

SIDE EFFECTS

The following information is taken from the Sonata label:

  • abdominal pain

  • abnormal gait

  • abnormal liver function tests

  • abnormal vision

  • abnormality of accommodation

  • acne

  • agitation

  • albuminuria

  • alopecia

  • alt (sgpt) increased

  • amnesia

  • anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions

  • anemia

  • angina pectoris

  • anorexia

  • anxiety

  • apathy

  • aphthous stomatitis

  • apnea

  • arthralgia

  • arthritis

  • arthrosis

  • ast (sgot) increased

  • asthenia

  • asthma

  • ataxia

  • back pain

  • bigeminy

  • biliary pain

  • bilirubinemia

  • bladder pain

  • blepharitis

  • breast pain

  • bronchitis

  • bruxism

  • bundle branch block

  • bursitis

  • cardiospasm

  • cataract specified

  • cerebral ischemia

  • cheilitis

  • chest pain

  • chest pain substernal

  • chills

  • cholelithiasis

  • circumoral paresthesia

  • cns stimulation

  • colitis

  • confusion

  • conjunctivitis

  • constipation

  • contact dermatitis

  • corneal erosion

  • cyanosis

  • cystitis

  • deafness

  • decreased urine stream

  • delayed menstrual period

  • delusions

  • depersonalization

  • depression

  • diabetes mellitus

  • diplopia

  • dizziness

  • dry eyes

  • dry mouth

  • dry skin

  • duodenal ulcer

  • dysarthria

  • dysmenorrhea

  • dyspepsia

  • dysphagia

  • dyspnea

  • dystonia

  • dysuria

  • ear pain
  • ecchymosis

  • eczema

  • edema

  • emotional lability

  • enteritis

  • eosinophilia

  • epistaxis

  • eructation

  • esophagitis

  • euphoria

  • eye hemorrhage

  • eye pain

  • face edema

  • facial paralysis

  • fever

  • flatulence

  • gastritis

  • gastroenteritis

  • generalized edema

  • gingivitis

  • glaucoma

  • glossitis

  • goiter

  • gout

  • gum hemorrhage

  • hallucinations

  • hangover effect

  • headache

  • hematuria

  • hiccup

  • hostility

  • hyperacusis

  • hypercholesteremia

  • hyperesthesia

  • hyperglycemia

  • hyperkinesias

  • hypertension

  • hypertonia

  • hyperuricemia

  • hyperventilation

  • hypesthesia

  • hypoglycemia

  • hypoglycemic reaction

  • hypokinesia

  • hypotension

  • hypothyroidism

  • hypotonia

  • impotence

  • incoordination

  • increased appetite

  • increased salivation

  • insomnia

  • intestinal obstruction

  • joint disorder (mainly swelling, stiffness, and pain)

  • ketosis

  • kidney calculus

  • kidney pain

  • labyrinthitis

  • lactose intolerance

  • laryngitis

  • leucorrhea

  • leukocytosis

  • libido decreased

  • lymphadenopathy

  • lymphocytosis

  • maculopapular rash

  • malaise

  • melanosis

  • melena

  • menopause

  • menorrhagia

  • metrorrhagia

  • migraine

  • mouth ulceration

  • myalgia

  • myasthenia
  • myoclonus

  • myositis

  • nausea

  • neck rigidity

  • nervousness

  • neuralgia

  • neuropathy

  • nystagmus

  • osteoporosis

  • palpitation

  • paresthesia

  • parosmia

  • peptic ulcer

  • pericardial effusion

  • peripheral edema

  • photophobia

  • photosensitivity reaction

  • pleural effusion

  • pneumonia

  • postural hypotension

  • pruritus

  • psoriasis

  • psychomotor retardation

  • ptosis

  • pulmonary embolus

  • purpura

  • pustular rash

  • rash

  • rectal hemorrhage

  • reflexes decreased

  • reflexes increased

  • retinal detachment

  • sinus bradycardia

  • skin discoloration

  • skin hypertrophy

  • sleep talking

  • sleep walking

  • slurred speech

  • snoring

  • somnolence

  • sputum increased

  • stomatitis

  • stupor

  • sweating

  • syncope

  • tachycardia

  • taste loss

  • taste perversion

  • tenosynovitis

  • thinking abnormal (mainly difficulty concentrating

  • thirst

  • thrombophlebitis

  • tinnitus

  • tongue discoloration

  • tongue edema

  • tremor

  • trismus

  • ulcerative stomatitis

  • urethritis

  • urinary frequency

  • urinary incontinence

  • urinary retention

  • urinary urgency

  • urticaria

  • vaginal hemorrhage

  • vaginitis

  • vasodilatation

  • ventricular extrasystoles

  • ventricular tachycardia

  • vertigo

  • vesiculobullous rash

  • visual field defect

  • voice alteration

  • watery eyes

  • weight gain

  • weight loss

WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS

Sonata can be a very difficult drug to stop taking.

  • anxiety
  • hyperesthesia
 

TREATMENT

Withdrawal from Sonata should only be done under the care of a health practitioner. The safest way is to withdraw at an inpatient medical detox facility with a protocol that includes hydration, vitamins and supplements for biological balancing. Call us to talk to a Detox Advisor.
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